Genome-wide identification of the F-box gene family and expression analysis under drought and salt stress in barley

  • Dawei Xue Hangzhou Normal University
  • Lantian Zhang
  • Siyi Wang
  • Yuyu Chen
  • Mengyuan Dong
  • Yunxia Fang
  • Tao Tong
  • Ziling Zhang
  • Junjun Zheng
  • Xiaoqin Zhang


The F-box protein-encoding gene family plays an essential role in plant stress resistance. In present study, 126 non-redundant F-box genes were identified. The corresponding proteins contained 165–887 amino acid residues and all were amphiphilic, except 5 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis was used to classify the F-box genes into 9 subfamilies (A–I). A structure-based sequence alignment demonstrated that F-box proteins were highly conserved with a total of 10 conserved motifs. In total, 124 F-box genes were unevenly distributed on 7 chromosomes; another 2 genes have not been anchored yet. The gene structure analysis revealed high variability in the number of exons and introns in F-box genes. Of the 12 detected F-box genes, 8 and 10 were upregulated after drought and salt stress treatments, respectively, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This study is the first systematic analysis conducted on the F-box gene family in barley, which is of great importance for clarifying this family’s bioinformatic characteristics and elucidating its function in barley stress resistance. These results will serve as a theoretical reference for subsequent research on molecular regulation mechanisms, genetic breeding, and improvement.