ACC Deaminase Producing Bacteria and Biochar: Key mitigators of drought stress in plants
Most of the cereal crops are widely cultivated to fulfil the humans food requirements. Under changing climate scenario, the intensity of drought stress is continuously increasing that is adversely affecting the growth and yield of cereal crops. Although these cereals can tolerate moderate drought to some extent, but most they are susceptible to severe drought stress. Therefore, for optimization of cereal crops yield, it is very important to understand physiological and biochemical attributes especially hormonal changes in plants which are associated with limited availability of water. Higher biosynthesis of ethylene under drought stress has been reported earlier. Many scientists observed that inoculation of ACC deaminase producing PGPR is an efficacious tool to overcome this problem. These PGPR secrete ACC deaminase which cleavage the ACC into the compounds, other than ethylene. Furthermore, secretion of growth hormones also play imperative role in enhancing the growth of the cereals under limited availability of water. In addition, the use of biochar has also been recognized as another effective amendment to grant resistance against drought. Biochar application improves the soil physiochemical attributes i.e., porosity, nutrients retention and water holding capacity which decrease the loss of water and increase its bioavailability. In recent era, the idea of combined use of ACC deaminase producing PGPR and biochar is becoming popular which might be more efficient to use water under drought stress. The aim of this novel idea is to grant maximum resistance to crops against drought stress. Some scientists have observed significant improvement in yield of cereal crops by combined use of ACC deaminase producing PGPR and biochar. However, more research is suggested for deep understanding of complex synergistic mechanism of ACC deaminase activity in combination with biochar.
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