From markers to genome based breeding in horticultural crops: an overview

  • Riaz Ahmad
  • Muhammad Akbar Anjum Professor
  • Rashad Mukhtar Balal


Molecular markers, genome sequencing and genome editing are considered as efficient and versatile tools to accomplish demands of plant breeders for crop improvement programs. Morphological and biochemical markers have not been extensively used as these are greatly influenced by environmental factors. Different molecular markers and sequencing techniques are routinely used in evaluation of genetic diversity and evolutionary relationship, accurate classification or taxonomy, characterization of germplasm, identification of hybrids and phylogenetic studies. These molecular markers are well established and have successfully been used for genetic analysis of different plants during last two decades. Recently, advanced techniques of molecular markers have been developed form earlier and basic techniques or their combination. This advanced class tends to merge valuable properties of many basic systems. New class of markers also includes little modifications in basic methods to enhance the sensitivity and resolution for evaluation of genetic gap. Current review provides detailed description of different markers, genome sequencing and genome editing that were further utilized for different genetic analysis of horticultural crops.

Keywords: Genetic analysis; Genome sequencing; Genome editing; Molecular markers; Plant breeders.

Author Biographies

Riaz Ahmad


Department of Horticuture, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan.

Rashad Mukhtar Balal

Department of Horticulture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.