MULTIFACETED STRATEGIES USED BY ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES TO PARASITIZE PLANTS- A REVIEW
Root-knot nematodes being omnipresent in agricultural and horticultural soils are tallied among the most important economic pathogens around the world. For successful parasitism, these nematodes use various strategies to control and manipulate the host plant’s cell machinery. These strategies include the molecular mimicry of some host genes by some nematode secreted effectors, secretion of cell wall digesting enzymes and other effectors that are responsible for the suppression of defence by the host plant. All these secretions which are released through the stylet, contribute to the formation of specialized feeding sites or giant cells. The effector proteins interfere with the normal physiology, cytology and biochemistry of the host plant. This review brings novel insights by summarizing some novel effectors that have been discovered recently like MiIDL1, MiISE6, Mg16820, etc. It also discusses some novel mechanisms through which these effectors target different pathways of host plant and thus facilitate nematode parasitism.
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